Types of Fish Farming (Aquaculture) Systems | Fish Culture Systems

Alt: = "fish in water with its mouth covered with face mask"

Fish farming or aquaculture simply means the farming of fish and other marine organisms. It basically involves the cultivation of freshwater and saltwater animals in a controlled environment.

Fish Future Systems

Fish culture involves the controlled cultivation and harvesting of fish for either family consumption or sales in the market. When species combinations are taken into consideration, culture systems can be of different types.

Monoculture: Monoculture system involves the rearing of only one type of fish in a pond.

Polycuture system: is the rearing of two or more species of fish together in same pond. Example: Catfish and Tilapia

Integrated Culture: is the rearing of fish with either plants or animals within the same culture environment. Example: rice-fish, cattle-fish or poultry-fish. Tilapia and Catfish are suitable for culture with poultry or rice.

Each of these culture systems are practiced in Nigeria.

Read also: Requirements for Fish Pond Site Selection and Construction

Fish farming systems are diverse and include for example:

Water-based systems (cages and pens, inshore/ offshore).

Land-based systems (rain-fed ponds, irrigated or flow-through systems, tanks).

Recycling system (high control enclosed systems, more open pond based recirculation).

Fish Farming/ Aquaculture Systems

Depending on the level of management practices, aquaculture systems are classified mainly into three.

These were extensive system, semi-intensive system and intensity system.

Extensive System

In this system, cultured fish are exclusively dependent on natural productivity with little or no supplementation of feeds. There are no health management schedules  or water quality monitoring. Fish yield is usually low in this system. The system is practiced more in natural ponds.

Semi-Intensive System

Food supplementation in pond is a major management practice in this system. Culture facilities include earthen ponds, concrete ponds, plastic tanks and fibre tanks. Commercially compounded feeds are routinely given to the fish at recommended rates. Water quality and fish health are occasionally monitored. Fish yield is high in this system.

Intensive System

In this fish farming system, feed supplementation, water quality monitoring and health management are routinely management practices. Culture facilities include earthen ponds, concrete ponds, plastic tanks, fibre tanks. Fish yields are higher than in the semi-intensive farming system.

Read also: How to Construct Fish Ponds: Step-by-step Guide

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