Causes of Food Inflation and Insecurity in Nigeria

 Food Inflation and Insecurity in Nigeria

Nigeria is currently experiencing food insecurity as food inflation has risen to over 15 years to 22.28% as at May, 2021, according to statistics released by National Bureau of Statistics. Average Consumer Price Index is 17.93%, with food inflation being the highest when compared with other commodities. There are many contributory factors to this inflation, which if not properly addressed by all stakeholders, there may be food crisis (famine) in Nigeria in the nearest future as United Nations Development Program has warned Nigeria of an imminent famine in 2022. Most of these causes are man-made, even the natural phenomena can be mitigated by adopting climate smart farming system.

Causes of Inflation and Insecurity

Population increase

At the time Nigeria was doing well in agricultural production, the nations population was about 64 million. Over the years population has risen to about 206,000,000 with annual increase of 3% according to 2006 national population census projects. Nigeria birthrate is average of 5 children per woman. Increase in population has led to proportional increase in food demand — there more months to feed in each household.

Low agricultural productivity

Low investment in agriculture

Farming system

Nigeria still practices Shifting cultivation, rotated cropping. In the modern day agriculture, the best farming practices are the mixed farming and continuous farming for to maximize the land potential for increased yield and reduce the risk of investment failure.


Climate change

Inadequate processing and storage capacities



Erosion is one of the major challenges facing agricultural production of a nation. Like flooding, it leads to loss of farm crops. It also leads to reduction in farm areas. Urbanization is claiming farmlands in one hand, gully erosion is claiming farmlands on the other hand, leaving farmers with little farmlands for agricultural production. Erosion mince is more prevalent in the Southeast and some areas in South-South.

Natural disaster — Flooding

Weakening value of the Naira

Inefficient transport system

High cost of marketing

Border closure and ban on food items

Solutions to Food Inflation and Insecurity in Nigeria

Population control

 Tackling insecurity

Adoption of climate smart farming system

Increase in agricultural food productivity

Adopting erosion control farming techniques

Increase processing storage capacities

Opening border for food importation and lifting ban on some food items especially those that are yet to be produced locally in large quantities that can serve local demand

Market Stability

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