Factors to Consider for Proper Farms Structures and Buildings

The next important thing in setting up a farm after site selection is farm buildings or structures — proposed farm structures and buildings play important role in site selection. Correct housing is vital to the success of farm enterprise. There are factors to consider before building farm structures and buildings.

1. Topography and Type of Soil 

The topography of the area is very important. A well level sandy-loamy soil is most preferred for durability of the farm houses. Low land prone to water log and flood, or sloppy land should be avoided. Foundation soil should not be too dehydrated or desiccated. Such soil is susceptible to considerable swelling during rainy season and exhibit numerous cracks and fissures.

2. Purpose of the Building or Structure

What the building is going to  house plays a role in structuring any farm building. Is the structure going to be used for housing farm animals, what type of livestock? Is the building for storage? These questions need to be answered. Farm structures or buildings differ depending on the need for the house. Poultry house design is different from cattle house design (cattle house for beef production is different from one for dairy production).

a. POULTRY HOUSING: There are basically two types of housing systems in poultry production depending on either layer or broiler production 

i. Battery cage: this housing system is usually for commercial layer production and it allows for easy labour and management. The design, shape and quality may differ from one farm to another depending on price and availability of materials 

ii. Deep litter system: deep litter system can be used conveniently for both layer and broiler production. It’s less expensive compared to battery cage. 


alt = "poultry house design"

alt = "poultry house designs"

3. Wind and Sunshine Directions 

The wind direction should be considered in  positioning farm structures and buildings to avoid the farm houses especially the roofs being carried away by the wind. If there will be open sided, single slop roof structure in the farm, open structure should face the south for winter and block prevailing winds that come from north. Longs axis of gable roof farm house should be located towards east-west direction in the farm. This minimizes the amount of direct sunlight that would enter through the sidewalls of the farm houses. The prevailing wind direction of the area would give you an idea of how to put your farmsteads, and the distance you need to provide between your farm structures and buildings, and other residences. 

How to determine east, west, north, south directions

Use any of the following two methods to locate the sides on the earth surface.

a. The sun rises from the east and sets in the west. So when you face the sun in the morning, your front is east, your back is west, while your right hand side is south and your left hand side is north. 

b.Take a magnet that its polar axis is labeled north and south. Dangle it and allow it to rest. The north and south poles will face north and south accordingly. 

4. Number of Animals to be Housed and Expansion Plan 

The size of the structures should be large enough to conveniently accommodate the animals to be housed. Farming is a business that experiences expansion every now and then. Therefore, you should construction  structures that can make space for expansion.

Conditions Necessary for Construction of Farm Building 

  • It should be strong enough to last long time
  • Large enough for the quantity of animals to be housed comfortably
  • Be well drained and easy to clean
  • Be well lighted and ventilated
  • Ensure that temperature, relative air humidity and gas concentration are at levels that will not harm the animals
  • Should have isolation pens for sick, injured or new animals, and they should be far from the main house. 

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